Bioengineering

UCLA
5121 Engineering V
Box 951600
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1600

tel: 310-267-4985
fax: 310-794-5956
e-mail: bioeng@ea.ucla.edu
http://bioeng.ucla.edu

Song Li, Ph.D., Chair
Dino Di Carlo, Ph.D., Graduate Vice Chair
Jacob Schmidt, Ph.D., Undergraduate Vice Chair

Faculty

Professors

Denise Aberle, M.D.

Pei-Yu Chiou, Ph.D.

Mark S. Cohen, Ph.D., in Residence

Ian A. Cook, M.D.

Linda L. Demer, M.D., Ph.D

Timothy J. Deming, Ph.D.

Dino Di Carlo, Ph.D.

James C. Dunn, M.D., Ph.D.

Robin L. Garrell, Ph.D.

Warren S. Grundfest, M.D., FACS

Dean Ho, Ph.D.

Tzung Hsiai, M.D., Ph.D., in Residence

Bahram Jalali, Ph.D.

Daniel T. Kamei, Ph.D.

H. Pirouz Kavehpour, Ph.D.

Chang-Jin Kim, Ph.D.

Debiao Li, Ph.D., in Residence

Song Li, Ph.D.

James C. Liao, Ph.D. (Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Professor of Chemical Engineering)

Wentai Liu, Ph.D.

Aman Mahajan, M.D., Ph.D., in Residence

Aydogan Ozcan, Ph.D.

Jacob Rosen, Ph.D.

Jacob J. Schmidt, Ph.D.

Tatiana Segura, Ph.D.

Kalyanam Shivkumar, M.D., Ph.D., in Residence

Ren Sun, Ph.D.

Yi Tang, Ph.D.

Michael A. Teitell, M.D., Ph.D.

Cun Yu Wang, D.D.S., Ph.D.

Gerard C.L. Wong, Ph.D.

Benjamin M. Wu, D.D.S., Ph.D.

Yang Yang, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus

Edward R.B. McCabe, M.D., Ph.D. (Mattel Executive Endowed Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics)

Associate Professors

Chi On Chui, Ph.D.

Daniel B. Ennis, Ph.D., in Residence

Andrea M. Kasko, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor

Stephanie K. Seidlits, Ph.D.

Adjunct Associate Professor

Bill J. Tawil, M.B.A., Ph.D.

Adjunct Assistant Professors

Kayvan Niazi, Ph.D.

Zachary Taylor, Ph.D.

Affiliated Faculty

Professors

Peyman Benharash, M.D. (Cardiothoracic Surgery)

Marvin Bergsneider, M.D., in Residence (Neurosurgery)

Douglas L. Black, Ph.D. (Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics)

Alex A.T. Bui, Ph.D. (Radiological Sciences)

Gregory P. Carman, Ph.D. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

Yong Chen, Ph.D. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

Thomas Chou, Ph.D. (Biomathematics, Mathematics)

Samson A. Chow, Ph.D. (Molecular and Medical Pharmacology)

Joseph L. Demer, M.D., Ph.D. (Neurology, Ophthalmology)

Katrina M. Dipple, M.D., Ph.D. (Human Genetics, Pediatrics)

Joseph J. DiStefano III, Ph.D. (Computer Science, Medicine)

Bruce S. Dunn, Ph.D. (Materials Science and Engineering)

V. Reggie Edgerton, Ph.D. (Integrative Biology and Physiology)

Jeffrey D. Eldredge, Ph.D. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

Alan Garfinkel, Ph.D. (Cardiology, Integrative Biology and Physiology)

Christopher C. Giza, Ph.D., in Residence (Neurosurgery, Surgery)

Robert P. Gunsalus, Ph.D. (Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics)

Vijay Gupta, Ph.D. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

Y. Sungtaek Ju, Ph.D. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

H. Phillip Koeffler, M.D., in Residence (Medicine)

Jody E. Kreiman, Ph.D., in Residence (Surgery)

Elliot M. Landaw, M.D., Ph.D. (Biomathematics)

Karen M. Lyons, Ph.D. (Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, Orthopaedic Surgery)

Dejan Markovic, Ph.D. (Electrical Engineering)

Thomas G. Mason, Ph.D. (Chemistry and Biochemistry, Physics and Astronomy)

Heather D. Maynard, Ph.D. (Chemistry and Biochemistry)

Harry McKellop, Ph.D., in Residence (Orthopaedic Surgery)

Istvan Mody, Ph.D. (Neurology, Physiology)

Harold G. Monbouquette, Ph.D. (Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering)

Samuel S. Murray, M.D., Ph.D., in Residence (Medicine)

Peter M. Narins, Ph.D. (Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Biology and Physiology)

Ichiro Nishimura, D.D.S., D.M.Sc., D.M.D. (Dentistry)

Matteo Pellegrini, Ph.D. (Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology)

Laurent Pilon, Ph.D. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

Zhilin Qu, Ph.D., in Residence (Cardiology, Medicine)

Dario L. Ringach, Ph.D. (Neurobiology, Psychology)

Desmond Smith, Ph.D. (Molecular and Medical Pharmacology)

Michael V. Sofroniew, M.D., Ph.D. (Neurobiology)

Chia B. Soo, M.D. (Plastic Surgery)

Igor Spigelman, Ph.D. (Dentistry)

Ricky Taira, Ph.D, in Residence (Radiological Sciences)

Albert Thomas, Ph.D., in Residence (Radiological Sciences)

James G. Tidball, Ph.D. (Integrative Biology and Physiology)

Kang Ting, D.M.D., D.M.Sc. (Dentistry)

Hsian-Rong Tseng, Ph.D. (Molecular and Medical Pharmacology)

Jack Van Horn, Ph.D. (Neurology)

David Wong, Ph.D. (Dentistry)

Lily Wu, Ph.D., M.D. (Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Urology)

Xinshu Grace Xiao, Ph.D. (Integrative Biology and Physiology)

Z. Hong Zhou, Ph.D. (Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics)

Professor Emeritus

Tony F. Chan, Ph.D. (Mathematics)

Associate Professors

James W. Bisley, Ph.D. (Neurobiology)

Robert N. Candler, Ph.D. (Electrical Engineering)

Benjamin M. Ellingson, Ph.D. (Radiology)

Thomas G. Graeber, Ph.D. (Molecular and Medical Pharmacology)

Jean-Pierre Hubschman, M.D., in Residence (Ophthalmology)

Min Lee, Ph.D. (Dentistry)

Daniel S. Levi, Ph.D. (Pediatrics)

Zili Liu, Ph.D. (Psychology)

Veronica J. Santos, Ph.D. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

Ladan Shams, Ph.D. (Psychology)

Michael R. van Dam, Ph.D. (Molecular and Medical Pharmacology)

Zhaoyan Zhang, Ph.D., in Residence (Head and Neck Surgery)

Assistant Professors

Louis S. Bouchard, Ph.D. (Chemistry and Biochemistry)

William Hsu, Ph.D. (Radiology)

Peng Hu, Ph.D. (Radiology)

Sotiris C. Masmanidis, Ph.D. (Neurobiology)

Nader Pouratian, Ph.D. (Neurosurgery)

Amy C. Rowat, Ph.D. (Integrative Biology and Physiology)

Dan Ruan, Ph.D. (Radiation Oncology)

Kyung Hyun Sung, Ph.D. (Radiology)

Holden H. Wu, Ph.D. (Radiology)

Scope and Objectives

The interface between biology and engineering is an exciting area for discovery and technology development in the twenty-first century. The Department of Bioengineering offers an innovative curriculum and state-of-the-art facilities for cutting-edge research.

The bioengineering program is a structured offering of unique forward-looking courses dedicated to producing graduates who are well-grounded in the fundamental sciences and highly proficient in rigorous analytical engineering tools necessary for lifelong success in the wide range of possible bioengineering careers. Combined with a strong emphasis on research, the program provides a unique engineering educational experience that responds to the growing needs and demands of bioengineering.

Department Mission

The mission of the Bioengineering Department is to perform cutting-edge research that benefits society and to train future leaders in the wide range of possible bioengineering careers by producing graduates who are well-grounded in the fundamental sciences, adept at addressing open-ended problems, and highly proficient in rigorous analytical engineering tools necessary for lifelong success.

Undergraduate Program Objectives

The bioengineering program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET.

The goal of the bioengineering curriculum is to train future leaders by providing students with the fundamental scientific knowledge and engineering tools necessary for graduate study in engineering or scientific disciplines, continued education in professional schools, or employment in industry. There are five main program educational objectives: graduates (1) participate in graduate, professional, and continuing education activities that demonstrate an appreciation for lifelong learning, (2) demonstrate professional, ethical, societal, environmental, and economic responsibility (e.g., by active membership in professional organizations), (3) demonstrate the ability to identify, analyze, and solve complex, open-ended problems by creating and implementing appropriate designs, (4) work effectively in teams consisting of people of diverse disciplines and cultures, and (5) be effective written and oral communicators in their professions or graduate/professional schools.

Undergraduate Study

The Bioengineering major is a designated capstone major. Utilizing knowledge from previous courses and new skills learned from the capstone courses, undergraduate students work in teams to apply advanced knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering principles to address problems at the interface of biology and engineering and to develop innovative bioengineering solutions to meet specific sets of design criteria. Coursework entails construction of student designs, project updates, presentation of projects in written and oral format, and team competition.

Bioengineering B.S.

Capstone Major

Preparation for the Major

Required: Bioengineering 10; Chemistry and Biochemistry 20A, 20B, 20L, 30A, 30AL, 30B; Civil and Environmental Engineering M20 or Computer Science 31 or Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M20; Life Sciences 2 (satisfies HSSEAS GE life sciences requirement), 3, 23L; Mathematics 31A, 31B, 32A, 32B, 33A, 33B; Physics 1A, 1B, 1C, 4AL.

The Major

Students must complete the following courses:

  1. Bioengineering 100, 110, 120, 165EW (or Engineering 183EW or 185EW), 167L, 176, 180, Electrical Engineering 100; three technical breadth courses (12 units) selected from an approved list available in the Office of Academic and Student Affairs; two capstone design courses (Bioengineering 177A, 177B)
  2. Two major field elective courses (8 units) from Bioengineering C101, C106, C131, C155, M260 (a petition is required for M260)
  3. Five additional major field elective courses (20 units) from Bioengineering C101 (unless taken under item 2), CM102, CM103, C104, C105, C106 (unless taken under item 2), C131 (unless taken under item 2), CM140, CM145, C147, C155 (unless taken under item 2), C170, C171, CM178, C179, 180L, C183, C185, CM186, CM187, 199 (8 units maximum)

Three of the major field elective courses and the three technical breadth courses may also be selected from one of the following tracks. Bioengineering majors cannot take bioengineering technical breadth courses to fulfill the technical breadth requirement.

Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine: Bioengineering C104, C105, CM140, C147, C183, C185, 199 (8 units maximum), Materials Science and Engineering 104, 110, 111, 120, 130, 132, 140, 143A, 150, 151, 160, 161. The above materials science and engineering courses may be used to satisfy the technical breadth requirement.

Biomedical Devices: Bioengineering C131, C172, 199 (8 units maximum), Electrical Engineering 102, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering C187L. The electrical engineering or mechanical and aerospace engineering courses listed above may be used to satisfy the technical breadth requirement.

For Bioengineering 199 to fulfill a track requirement, the research project must fit within the scope of the track field, and the research report must be approved by the supervisor and vice chair.

For information on University and general education requirements, see Requirements for B.S. Degrees on page 21 or http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/Academics/GE-Requirement.

Graduate Study

For information on graduate admission, see Graduate Programs, page 24.

The following introductory information is based on the 2016-17 edition of Program Requirements for UCLA Graduate Degrees. Complete annual editions of Program Requirements are available at https://grad.ucla.edu. Students are subject to the detailed degree requirements as published in Program Requirements for the year in which they enter the program.

The Bioengineering Department offers Master of Science (M.S.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in Bioengineering.

Bioengineering M.S.

Course Requirements

A minimum of 13 courses (44 units) is required.

For the comprehensive track, at least 11 courses must be from the 200 series, three of which must be Bioengineering 299 courses. Students must also take one 495 course. One 100-series course may be applied toward the total course and unit requirement. No units of 500-series courses may be applied toward the minimum course requirements except for the field of medical imaging informatics where 2 units of course 597A are required.

For the thesis track, at least 10 of the 13 courses must be from the 200 series, three of which must be Bioengineering 299 courses. Students must also take two 598 courses involving work on the thesis and one 495 course.

To remain in good academic standing, M.S. students must maintain an overall grade-point average of 3.0 and a grade-point average of 3.0 in graduate courses.

Comprehensive Examination Plan

The comprehensive examination plan is available in all fields, and requirements vary for each field. Specific details are available from the graduate adviser. Students who fail the examination may repeat it once only, subject to the approval of the faculty examination committee. Students who fail the examination twice are not permitted to submit a thesis and are subject to termination. The oral component of the Ph.D. preliminary examination is not required for the M.S. degree.

Thesis Plan

Every master’s degree thesis plan requires the completion of an approved thesis that demonstrates student ability to perform original independent research. New students who select this plan are expected to submit the name of the thesis adviser to the graduate adviser by the end of their first term in residence. The thesis adviser serves as chair of the thesis committee.

A research thesis (8 units of Bioengineering 598) is to be written on a bioengineering topic approved by the thesis adviser. The thesis committee consists of the thesis adviser and two other qualified faculty members who are selected from a current list of designated members for the graduate program.

Bioengineering Ph.D.

Course Requirements

To complete the Ph.D. degree, all students must fulfill minimum University requirements. Students must pass the Ph.D. preliminary examination, University Oral Qualifying Examination, and final oral examination, and complete the courses in Group I, Group II, and Group III under Fields of Study below. Also see Course Requirements under Bioengineering M.S. Students must maintain a grade-point average of 3.25 or better in all courses.

Written and Oral Qualifying Examinations

Academic Senate regulations require all doctoral students to complete and pass University written and oral qualifying examinations prior to doctoral advancement to candidacy. Under Senate regulations the University Oral Qualifying Examination is open only to students and appointed members of their doctoral committees. In addition to University requirements, some graduate programs have other precandidacy examination requirements. What follows are the requirements for this doctoral program.

The Ph.D. preliminary examination tests a core body of knowledge, and requirements vary for each field. Specific details are available from the graduate adviser. Students who fail the examination may repeat it once only, subject to the approval of the faculty examination committee. Students who fail the examination twice are subject to a recommendation for termination.

Within three terms after passing the Ph.D. preliminary examination, students are strongly encouraged to take the University Oral Qualifying Examination. The nature and content of the examination are at the discretion of the doctoral committee, but ordinarily include a broad inquiry into student preparation for research. The doctoral committee also reviews the prospectus of the dissertation at the oral qualifying examination.

A doctoral committee consists of a minimum of four qualified UCLA faculty members. Three members, including the chair, are selected from a current list of designated inside members for the graduate program. The outside member must be a qualified UCLA faculty member who does not appear on this list.

A final oral examination (defense of the dissertation) is required of all students.

Fields of Study

Biomedical Instrumentation

The biomedical instrumentation (BMI) field is designed to train bioengineers interested in the applications and development of instrumentation used in medicine and biotechnology. Examples include the use of lasers in surgery and diagnostics, new microelectrical machines for surgery, sensors for detecting and monitoring of disease, microfluidic systems for cell-based diagnostics, new tool development for basic and applied life sciences research, and controlled drug delivery devices. The principles underlying each instrument and specific clinical or biological needs are emphasized. Graduates are targeted principally for employment in academia, government research laboratories, and the biotechnology, medical devices, and biomedical industries.

Course Requirements

Group I: Core Courses on General Concepts. At least three courses selected from Bioengineering C201, C204, C205, C206.

Group II: Field Specific Courses. At least three courses selected from Bioengineering CM202 (or CM203 or Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology 165A), Bioengineering M153 (or Electrical Engineering M153 or Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M183B), Electrical Engineering 100.

Group III: Field Elective Courses. The remainder of the courses must be selected from one of the following three areas:

Bionanotechnology and Biophotonics: Bioengineering C270, C271, Chemistry and Biochemistry C240, Electrical Engineering 121B, 128, M217, 225, 274, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 258A, M287, C287L

Microfluidics, Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), and Biosensors: Bioengineering M260, 282, Chemical Engineering C216, Chemistry and Biochemistry 118, 156, Electrical Engineering 102, 110, 110L, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 103, 150A, C150G, M168, 250B, C250G, 250M, 281, M287, Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics 185A, Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology 165A, 168, M175A, M175B, M272

Surgical/Imaging Instrumentation: Bioengineering 224A, CM240, C270, C271, C272, Biomathematics M230, Electrical Engineering 176, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 171A, 263D

Other electives are approved on a case-by-case basis

Biomedical Signal and Image Processing

The biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) field prepares students for careers in the acquisition and analysis of biomedical signals and enables students to apply quantitative methods to extract meaningful information for both clinical and research applications. The program is premised on the fact that a core set of mathematical and statistical methods are held in common across signal acquisition and imaging modalities and across data analyses regardless of their dimensionality. These include signal transduction, characterization and analysis of noise, transform analysis, feature extraction from time series or images, quantitative image processing, and imaging physics. Students have the opportunity to focus their work over a broad range of modalities, including electrophysiology, optical imaging methods, MRI, CT, PET, and other tomographic devices, and/or on the extraction of image features such as organ morphometry or neurofunctional signals, and detailed anatomic/functional feature extraction. Career opportunities for BSIP trainees include medical instrumentation, engineering positions in medical imaging, and research in the application of advanced engineering skills to the study of anatomy and function.

Course Requirements

Group I: Core Courses on General Concepts. Three courses selected from Bioengineering C201 (or CM286) and either CM202 and CM203, OR Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology 144 and Physiological Science 166.

Group II: Field Specific Courses. At least three courses selected from Electrical Engineering 239AS, 266, Neurobiology M200C, Neuroscience CM272, M287, Physics and Biology in Medicine 205, M219, M248, and one course from Bioengineering 165EW, Biomathematics M261, Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics C134, or Neuroscience 207.

Group III: Field Elective Courses. The remainder of the courses must be selected from Bioengineering 100, 120, 223A, 223B, 223C, 224A, M261A, Biostatistics M238, Computer Science 269, Electrical Engineering 102, 113, 208A, 210A, 211A, 212A, 236A, 236B, 273, Mathematics 133, 155, 270A through 270F, Physics and Biology in Medicine 210, 217, 218, 222, 227, M230.

Biosystems Science and Engineering

Graduate study in biosystems science and engineering (BSSE) emphasizes the systems aspects of living processes, as well as their component parts. It is intended for science and engineering students interested in understanding biocontrol, regulation, communication, and measurement or visualization of biomedical systems (of aggregate parts—whole systems), for basic or clinical applications. Dynamic systems engineering, mathematical, statistical, and multiscale computational modeling and optimization methods—applicable at all biosystems levels—form the theoretical underpinnings of the field. They are the paradigms for exploring the integrative and hierarchical dynamical properties of biomedical systems quantitatively—at molecular, cellular, organ, whole organism, or societal levels—and leveraging them in applications. The academic program provides directed interdisciplinary biosystems studies in these areas, as well as quantitative dynamic systems biomodeling methods—integrated with the biology for specialized life sciences domain studies of interest to the students.

Typical research areas include molecular and cellular systems physiology, organ systems physiology, and medical, pharmacological, and pharmacogenomic systems studies, neurosystems, imaging and remote sensing systems, robotics, learning and knowledge-based systems, visualization, and virtual clinical environments. The program fosters careers in research and teaching in systems biology/physiology, engineering, medicine, and/or the biomedical sciences, or research and development in the biomedical or pharmaceutical industry.

Course Requirements

Group I: Core Courses on General Concepts. Two physiology/molecular, cellular, and organ systems biology courses from eitherBioengineering CM202 and CM203, OR Physiological Science 166 and Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology M140, OR 144 and another approved equivalent course, and two dynamic biosystems modeling, estimation, and optimization courses from Bioengineering CM286, and either Biomathematics 220 or 296B.

Group II: Field Specific and Elective Courses. Three courses, selected in consultation with and approved by the faculty adviser, from Bioengineering C204, C205, C206, M217, CM245, M248, M260, C283, M296D, Biomathematics 201, 206, 208A or 208B, 213, M230, Chemistry and Biochemistry CM260A, CM260B, Computer Science 161, CM224, Electrical Engineering 102, 113, 131A, 132A, 133A, 133B, 141, 142, 210B, 232E, 240B, M240C, 241A, M242A, M252, 260A, 260B, Mathematics 134, 136, 151A, 151B, 155, 170A, 170B, 171, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 107, 171A, Physiological Science 135, 200.

Group III: Field Ethics Course. One course selected from Bioengineering 165EW, Biomathematics M261, Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics C134, or Neuroscience 207.

Medical Imaging Informatics

Medical imaging informatics (MII) is the rapidly evolving field that combines biomedical informatics and imaging, developing and adapting core methods in informatics to improve the usage and application of imaging in healthcare. Graduate study encompasses principles from across engineering, computer science, information sciences, and biomedicine. Imaging informatics research concerns itself with the full spectrum of low-level concepts (e.g., image standardization and processing, image feature extraction) to higher-level abstractions (e.g., associating semantic meaning to a region in an image, visualization and fusion of images with other biomedical data) and ultimately, applications and the derivation of new knowledge from imaging. Medical imaging informatics ad-dresses not only the images themselves, but encompasses the associated (clinical) data to understand the context of the imaging study, to document observations, and to correlate and reach new conclusions about a disease and the course of a medical problem.

Research foci include distributed medical information architectures and systems, medical image understanding and applications of image processing, medical natural language processing, knowledge engineering and medical decision-support, and medical data visualization. Coursework is geared toward students with science and engineering backgrounds, introducing them to these areas in addition to providing exposure to fundamental biomedical informatics, imaging, and clinical issues. The area encourages interdisciplinary training with faculty members from multiple departments and emphasizes the practical translational development and evaluation of tools/applications to support clinical research and care.

Course Requirements

Group I: Core Courses on General Concepts. Bioengineering 220, 221 (or CM202 and CM203), 223A, 223B, 223C, 224B, M226, M227, M228.

Group II: Field Specific Courses. M.S. comprehensive students must take three courses and Ph.D. students must take six courses from any of the following concentrations:

Computer Understanding of Images: Computer Science M266A, M266B, Electrical Engineering 211A, Physics and Biology in Medicine 210, 214, M219, M230, M266

Computer Understanding of Text and Medical Information Retrieval: Computer Science 263A, Information Studies 228, 245, 246, 260, Linguistics 218, 232, Statistics M231

Information Networks and Data Access in Medical Environment: Computer Science 240B, 244A, 246

Probabilistic Modeling and Visualization of Medical Data: Biostatistics M209, M232, M234, M235, M236, Computer Science 241B, 262A, M262C, Information Studies 272, 277

Group III: Field Ethics Course. One course selected from Bioengineering 165EW, Biomathematics M261, Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics C134, or Neuroscience 207.

Molecular Cellular Tissue Therapeutics

The molecular cellular tissue therapeutics (MCTT) field covers novel therapeutic development across all biological length scales from molecules to cells to tissues. At the molecular and cellular levels, this research area encompasses the engineering of biomaterials, ligands, enzymes, protein-protein interactions, intracellular trafficking, biological signal transduction, genetic regulation, cellular metabolism, drug delivery vehicles, and cell-cell interactions, as well as the development of chemical/biological tools to achieve this.

At the tissue level, the field encompasses two subfields—biomaterials and tissue engineering. The properties of bone, muscles, and tissues, the replacement of natural materials with artificial compatible and functional materials such as polymers, composites, ceramics, and metals, and the complex interactions between implants and the body are studied at the tissue level. The research emphasis is on the fundamental basis for diagnosis, disease treatment, and redesign of molecular, cellular, and tissue functions. In addition to quantitative experiments required to obtain spatial and temporal information, quantitative and integrative modeling approaches at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels are also included within this field. Although some of the research remains exclusively at one length scale, research that bridges any two or all three length scales is also an integral part of this field. Graduates are targeted principally for employment in academia, government research laboratories, and the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries.

Course Requirements

Group I: Core Courses on General Concepts. At least three courses selected from Bioengineering C201, C204, C205, C206.

Group II: Field Specific Courses. At least three courses selected from Bioengineering 100, 110, 120, 176, CM278, C283, C285.

Group III: Field Elective Courses. The remainder of the courses must be selected from Bioengineering 180, M215, M225, CM240, CM245, CM287, Biomathematics 201, M203, M211, 220, M270, M271, Chemistry and Biochemistry 153A, 153B, M230B, CM260A, CM260B, C265, 269A, 269D, 277, C281, Materials Science and Engineering 110, 111, 200, 201, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 156A, M168, Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics 185A, Molecular and Medical Pharmacology M110A, 110B, 203, 211A, 211B, 288, Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology 100, M140, 144, 165A, C222D, 224, M230B, M234, Neuroscience 205, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine M237, 294.

Other electives are approved on a case-by-case basis

Neuroengineering

The neuroengineering (NE) field is designed to enable students with a background in biological sciences to develop and execute projects that make use of state-of-the-art technology, including microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), signal processing, and photonics. Students with a background in engineering develop and execute projects that address problems that have a neuroscientific base, including locomotion and pattern generation, central control of movement, and the processing of sensory information. Trainees develop the capacity for the multidisciplinary teamwork, in intellectually and socially diverse settings, that is necessary for new scientific insights and dramatic technological progress in the twenty-first century. Students take a curriculum designed to encourage cross-fertilization of neuroscience and engineering. The goal is for neuroscientists and engineers to speak each others’ language and move comfortably among the intellectual domains of the two fields.

Course Requirements

Group I: Core Courses on General Concepts. Three courses selected from Bioengineering C201 (or CM286) and either CM202 and CM203, OR Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology 144 and Physiological Science 166.

Group II: Field Specific Courses. Bioengineering M260, M261A, M284, and one course from 165EW, Biomathematics M261, Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics C134, or Neuroscience 207.

Group III: Field Elective Courses. Two courses from one of the following two concentrations:

Electronic Engineering: Chemical Engineering CM215, CM225, Electrical Engineering 210A, M214A, 214B, 216B, M250B, M252

Neuroscience: Bioengineering C206, M263, Neuroscience M201, M202, 205

Faculty Areas of Thesis Guidance

Professors

Denise Aberle, M.D. (U. Kansas, 1979)

Medical imaging informatics: imaging-based clinical trials, medical data visualization

Pei-Yu Chiou, Ph.D. (UC Berkeley, 2005)

Optofluidics systems

Mark S. Cohen, Ph.D. (Rockefeller, 1985)

Rapid methods of MR imaging, fusion of electrophysiology and fMRI, advanced approaches to MR data analysis, ultra-low field MRI using SQUID detection, low energy focused ultrasound for neurostimulation

Ian A. Cook, M.D. (Yale, 1987)

Brain function in normal states and cognitive disorders, blood brain barrier, effects of antidepressants on the brain, methods of treatment for mood disorders especially depression

Linda L. Demer, M.D., Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins, 1983)

Vascular biology, biomineralization, vascular calcification, mesenchymal stem cells

Timothy J. Deming, Ph.D. (UC Berkeley, 1993)

Polymer synthesis, polymer processing, supramolecular materials, organometallic catalysis, biomimetic materials, polypeptides

Dino Di Carlo, Ph.D. (UC Berkeley, 2006)

Microfluidics, biomedical microdevices, cellular diagnostics, cell analysis and engineering

James Dunn, M.D., Ph.D. (Harvard, MIT, 1992)

Tissue engineering, stem cell therapy, regenerative medicine

Robin L. Garrell, Ph.D. (U. Michigan, 1984)

Bioanalytical and surface chemistry with emphasis on fundamentals and applications of adhesion and wetting

Warren S. Grundfest, M.D., FACS (Columbia, 1980)

Excimer laser, minimally invasive surgery, biological spectroscopy

Dean Ho, Ph.D. (UCLA, 2005)

Nanodiamond hydrogel-based drug delivery system, nanodiamond-embedded patch device as a localized drug-delivery implantable microfilm, nanocloak film technology for noninvasive localized drug delivery

Tzung Hsiai, M.D. (U. Chicago, 1993), Ph.D. (UCLA, 2001)

Cardiovascular mechnotransduction, MEMS and nanosensors, vascular endothelial dynamics, molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)

Bahram Jalali, Ph.D. (Columbia, 1989)

RF photonics, fiber-optic integrated circuits, integrated optics, microwave photonics

Daniel T. Kamei, Ph.D. (MIT, 2001)

Molecular cell bioengineering, rational design of molecular therapeutics, systems-level analyses of cellular processes, drug delivery, diagnostics

H. Pirouz Kavehpour, Ph.D. (MIT, 2003)

Microscale fluid mechanics, transport phenomena in biological systems, physics of contact line phenomena, complex fluids, non-isothermal flows, micro- and nano-heat guides, microtribology

Chang-Jin Kim, Ph.D. (UC Berkeley, 1991)

Microelectromechanical systems: micro/nano fabrication technologies, structures, actuators, devices, and systems; microfluidics involving surface tension (especially droplets)

Debiao Li, Ph.D. (U. Virginia, 1992)

Development and clinical application of fast MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of the cardiovascular system

Song Li, Ph.D. (UCSD, 1997)

Stem cell engineering, tissue engineering and vascular remodeling, mechanobiology/mechanotransduction

James C. Liao, Ph.D. (U. Wisconsin-Madison, 1987)

Metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, bioenergy

Wentai Liu, Ph.D. (U. Michigan, 1983)

Neural engineering

Aman Mahajan, M.D. (U. Delhi, India, 1991), Ph.D. (UCLA, 2006)

Arrhythmia, cardiac imaging, patent foramen ovale repair, transesophageal echocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, valvuloplasty

Aydogan Ozcan, Ph.D. (Stanford, 2005)

Photonics, nano- and bio-technology

Jacob Rosen, Ph.D. (Tel Aviv U., Israel, 1997)

Natural integration of a human arm/powered exoskeleton system

Jacob J. Schmidt, Ph.D. (U. Minnesota, 1999)

Bioengineering and biophysics at micro and nanoscales, membrane protein engineering, biological-inorganic hybrid devices

Tatiana Segura, Ph.D. (Northwestern U., 2004)

Gene therapy, tissue engineering, substrate-mediated non-viral DNA delivery

Kalyanam Shivkumar, M.D. (U. Madras, India, 1990), Ph.D. (UCLA, 1999)

Mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias in humans, complex catheter ablation, medical technology for cardiovascular therapeutics

Ren Sun, Ph.D. (Yale, 1993)

Integration of biology and nanotechnology to define underlying mechanism and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as an in vivo model

Yi Tang, Ph.D. (Caltech, 2002)

Biosynthesis of proteins/polypeptides with unnatural amino acids, synthesis of novel anti-biotics/antitumor products

Michael A. Teitell, M.D. (UCLA, 1993), Ph.D. (UCLA, 1991)

Immune system development and cancer; regulation of gene expression in development and malignancy; linking RNA processing with mitochondrial homeostasis, metabolism and proliferation; nanoscale evaluation of malignant transformation

Cun Yu Wang, D.D.S. (Peking U., China, 1989), Ph.D. (U. North Carolina Chapel Hill, 1998)

Molecular signaling (NF-KB and Wnt) tumor-invasive growth and metastasis, adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental stem cells and regenerative medicine, inflammation and innate immunity

Gerald C.L. Wong, Ph.D. (UC Berkeley, 1994)

Antimicrobials and antibiotic-resistant pathogens, bacterial communities, cystic fibrosis, apoptosis proteins and cancer therapeutics, disinfection and water purification, self-assembly in biology and biotechnology, physical chemistry of solvation, soft condensed matter physics, biophysics

Benjamin M. Wu, D.D.S. (U. Pacific, 1987), Ph.D. (MIT, 1997)

Biomaterials, cell-material interactions, materials processing, tissue engineering, prosthetic and regenerative dentistry

Yang Yang, Ph.D. (U. Massachusetts Lowell, 1992)

Conjugated polymers and applications in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and field-effect transistors

Professor Emeritus

Edward R.B. McCabe, Ph.D. (USC, 1972), M.D. (USC, 1974)

Stem cell identification, regenerative medicine, systems biology

Associate Professors

Chi On Chui, Ph.D. (Stanford, 2004)

Nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices and technology, heterostructure semiconductor devices, monolithic integration of heterogeneous technology, exploratory nanotechnology

Daniel B. Ennis, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins, 2004)

MRI, cardiovascular pathophysiology, image processing, continuum mechanics, tensor analysis, soft tissue biomechanics

Andrea M. Kasko, Ph.D. (U. Akron, 2004)

Polymer synthesis, biomaterials, tissue engineering, cell-material interactions

Assistant Professor

Stephanie K. Seidlits, Ph.D. (U. Texas Austin, 2010)

Neural tissue engineering, spinal cord injury, gene therapy, hydrogels, cell-material interactions, high-throughput biological techniques, nervous system extracellular matrix, neural stem cells and development

Adjunct Associate Professor

Bill J. Tawil, M.B.A. (California Lutheran, 2006), Ph.D. (McGill, 1992)

Skin tissue engineering, bone tissue engineering, vascular tissue engineering, wound healing

Adjunct Assistant Professors

Kayvan Niazi, Ph.D. (UCLA, 2000)

Molecular and cellular bioengineering, immunotherapeutics

Zachary Taylor, Ph.D. (UC Santa Barbara, 2010)

THz imaging, laser-generated shockwaves

Affiliated Faculty

For areas of thesis guidance, see http://www.bioeng.ucla.edu/about-your-faculty-adviser.

Lower Division Courses

10. Introduction to Bioengineering. (2)

Lecture, two hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, three hours. Preparation: high school biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics. Introduction to scientific and technological bases for established and emerging subfields of bioengineering, including biosensors, bioinstrumentation, and biosignal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials, tissue engineering, biotechnology, biological imaging, biomedical optics and lasers, neuroengineering, and biomolecular machines. Letter grading. Mr. Deming (F)

19. Fiat Lux Freshman Seminars. (1)

Seminar, one hour. Discussion of and critical thinking about topics of current intellectual importance, taught by faculty members in their areas of expertise and illuminating many paths of discovery at UCLA. P/NP grading.

99. Student Research Program. (1 to 2)

Tutorial (supervised research or other scholarly work), three hours per week per unit. Entry-level research for lower division students under guidance of faculty mentor. Students must be in good academic standing and enrolled in minimum of 12 units (excluding this course). Individual contract required; consult Undergraduate Research Center. May be repeated. P/NP grading.

Upper Division Courses

100. Bioengineering Fundamentals. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: Mathematics 32A, Physics 1B. Fundamental basis for analysis and design of biological and biomedical devices and systems. Classical and statistical thermodynamic analysis of biological systems. Material, energy, charge, and force balances. Introduction to network analysis. Letter grading. Mr. Kamei (W)

C101. Engineering Principles for Drug Delivery. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C101.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: Mathematics 33B, Physics 1B. Application of engineering principles for designing and understanding delivery of therapeutics. Discussion of physics and mathematics required for understanding colloidal stability. Analysis of concepts related to both modeling and experimentation of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking mechanisms. Analysis of diffusion of drugs, coupled with computational and engineering mathematics approaches. Concurrently scheduled with course C201. Letter grading. Mr. Kamei (F)

CM102. Human Physiological Systems for Bioengineering I. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM102.) (Same as Physiological Science CM102.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Preparation: human molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology. Not open for credit to Physiological Science majors. Broad overview of basic biological activities and organization of human body in system (organ/tissue) to system basis, with particular emphasis on molecular basis. Modeling/simulation of functional aspect of biological system included. Actual demonstration of biomedical instruments, as well as visits to biomedical facilities. Concurrently scheduled with course CM202. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (F)

CM103. Human Physiological Systems for Bioengineering II. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM103.) (Same as Physiological Science CM103.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Preparation: human molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology. Not open for credit to Physiological Science majors. Molecular-level understanding of human anatomy and physiology in selected organ systems (digestive, skin, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, urinary, reproductive). System-specific modeling/simulations (immune regulation, wound healing, muscle mechanics and energetics, acid-base balance, excretion). Functional basis of biomedical instrumentation (dialysis, artificial skin, pathogen detectors, ultrasound, birth-control drug delivery). Concurrently scheduled with course CM203. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (W)

C104. Physical Chemistry of Biomacromolecules. (4)

(Formerly numbered M104.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, 30A, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L. To understand biological materials and design synthetic replacements, it is imperative to understand their physical chemistry. Biomacromolecules such as protein or DNA can be analyzed and characterized by applying fundamentals of polymer physical chemistry. Investigation of polymer structure and conformation, bulk and solution thermodynamics and phase behavior, polymer networks, and viscoelasticity. Application of engineering principles to problems involving biomacromolecules such as protein conformation, solvation of charged species, and separation and characterization of biomacromolecules. Concurrently scheduled with course C204. Letter grading. Mr. Wong (F)

C105. Engineering of Bioconjugates. (4)

(Formerly numbered M105.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L. Highly recommended: one organic chemistry course. Bioconjugate chemistry is science of coupling biomolecules for wide range of applications. Oligonucleotides may be coupled to one surface in gene chip, or one protein may be coupled to one polymer to enhance its stability in serum. Wide variety of bioconjugates are used in delivery of pharmaceuticals, in sensors, in medical diagnostics, and in tissue engineering. Basic concepts of chemical ligation, including choice and design of conjugate linkers depending on type of biomolecule and desired application, such as degradable versus nondegradable linkers. Presentation and discussion of design and synthesis of synthetic bioconjugates for some sample applications. Concurrently scheduled with course C205. Letter grading. Mr. Deming (F)

C106. Topics in Bioelectricity for Bioengineers. (4)

(Formerly numbered M106.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 20B, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L, Mathematics 33B, Physics 1C. Coverage in depth of physical processes associated with biological membranes and channel proteins, with specific emphasis on electrophysiology. Basic physical principles governing electrostatics in dielectric media, building on complexity to ultimately address action potentials and signal propagation in nerves. Topics include Nernst/Planck and Poisson/Boltzmann equations, Nernst potential, Donnan equilibrium, GHK equations, energy barriers in ion channels, cable equation, action potentials, Hodgkin/Huxley equations, impulse propagation, axon geometry and conduction, dendritic integration. Concurrently scheduled with course C206. Letter grading. Mr. Schmidt (F)

C107. Polymer Chemistry for Bioengineers. (4)

(Formerly numbered M107.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course C104 or C105. Fundamental concepts of polymer synthesis, including step-growth, chain growth (ionic, radical, metal catalyzed), and ring-opening, with focus on factors that can be used to control chain length, chain length distribution, and chain-end functionality, chain copolymerization, and stereochemistry in polymerizations. Presentation of applications of use of different polymerization techniques. Concepts of step-growth, chain-growth, ring-opening, and coordination polymerization, and effects of synthesis route on polymer properties. Lectures include both theory and practical issues demonstrated through examples. Concurrently scheduled with course C207. Letter grading. Mr. Deming (W)

110. Biotransport and Bioreaction Processes. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: course 100, Mathematics 33B. Introduction to analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, binding events, and biochemical reactions in systems of interest to bioengineers, including cells, tissues, organs, human body, extracorporeal devices, tissue engineering systems, and bioartificial organs. Introduction to pharmacokinetic analysis. Letter grading. Mr. Kamei (Sp)

120. Biomedical Transducers. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 30A, Electrical Engineering 100, Mathematics 32B, Physics 1C. Principles of transduction, design characteristics for different measurements, reliability and performance characteristics, and data processing and recording. Emphasis on silicon-based microfabricated and nanofabricated sensors. Novel materials, biocompatibility, biostability. Safety of electronic interfaces. Actuator design and interfacing control. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest, Mr. Schmidt (W)

C131. Nanopore Sensing. (4)

(Formerly numbered M131.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: courses 100, 120, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L, Physics 1A, 1B, 1C. Analysis of sensors based on measurements of fluctuating ionic conductance through artificial or protein nanopores. Physics of pore conductance. Applications to single molecule detection and DNA sequencing. Review of current literature and technological applications. History and instrumentation of resistive pulse sensing, theory and instrumentation of electrical measurements in electrolytes, nanopore fabrication, ionic conductance through pores and GHK equation, patch clamp and single channel measurements and instrumentation, noise issues, protein engineering, molecular sensing, DNA sequencing, membrane engineering, and future directions of field. Concurrently scheduled with course C231. Letter grading. Mr. Schmidt (Sp)

C139A. Biomolecular Materials Science I. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Overview of chemical and physical foundations of biomolecular materials science that concern materials aspects of molecular biology, cell biology, and bioengineering. Understanding of different types of interactions that exist between biomolecules, such as van der Waals interactions, entropically modulated electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, hydration and solvation interactions, polymer-mediated interactions, depletion interactions, molecular recognition, and others. Illustration of these ideas using examples from bioengineering and biomedical engineering. Students should be able to make simple calculations and estimates that allow them to engage broad spectrum of bioengineering problems, such as those in drug and gene delivery and tissue engineering. May be taken independently for credit. Concurrently scheduled with course C239A. Letter grading. Mr. Wong (W)

C139B. Biomolecular Materials Science II. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Course C139A is not requisite to C139B. Overview of chemical and physical foundations of biomolecular materials science that concern materials aspects of molecular biology, cell biology, and bioengineering. Understanding of different basic types of biomolecules, with emphasis on nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. Study of how biological and biomimetic systems organize into their functional forms via self-assembly and how these structures impart biological function. Illustration of these ideas using examples from bioengineering and biomedical engineering. Case study on current topics, including drug delivery, gene therapy, cancer therapeutics, emerging pathogens, and relation of self-assembly to disease states. May be taken independently for credit. Concurrently scheduled with course C239B. Letter grading. Mr. Wong (Sp)

CM140. Introduction to Biomechanics. (4)

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering CM140.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 96, 102, and 156A or 166A. Introduction to mechanical functions of human body; skeletal adaptations to optimize load transfer, mobility, and function. Dynamics and kinematics. Fluid mechanics applications. Heat and mass transfer. Power generation. Laboratory simulations and tests. Concurrently scheduled with course CM240. Letter grading. Mr. Gupta (W)

CM141. Mechanics of Cells. (4)

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering CM141.) Lecture, four hours. Introduction to physical structures of cell biology and physical principles that govern how they function mechanically. Review and application of continuum mechanics and statistical mechanics to develop quantitative mathematical models of structural mechanics in cells. Structure of macromolecules, polymers as entropic springs, random walks and diffusion, mechanosensitive proteins, single-molecule force-extension, DNA packing and transcriptional regulation, lipid bilayer membranes, mechanics of cytoskeleton, molecular motors, biological electricity, muscle mechanics, pattern formation. Concurrently scheduled with course CM241. Letter grading. (Not offered 2016-17)

CM145. Molecular Biotechnology for Engineers. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM145.) (Same as Chemical Engineering CM145.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: Life Sciences 3, 23L. Selected topics in molecular biology that form foundation of biotechnology and biomedical industry today. Topics include recombinant DNA technology, molecular research tools, manipulation of gene expression, directed mutagenesis and protein engineering, DNA-based diagnostics and DNA microarrays, antibody and protein-based diagnostics, genomics and bioinformatics, isolation of human genes, gene therapy, and tissue engineering. Concurrently scheduled with course CM245. Letter grading. Mr. Liao (F)

C147. Applied Tissue Engineering: Clinical and Industrial Perspective. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C147.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: course CM102, Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L, Life Sciences 1 or 2. Overview of central topics of tissue engineering, with focus on how to build artificial tissues into regulated clinically viable products. Topics include biomaterials selection, cell source, delivery methods, FDA approval processes, and physical/chemical and biological testing. Case studies include skin and artificial skin, bone and cartilage, blood vessels, neurotissue engineering, and liver, kidney, and other organs. Clinical and industrial perspectives of tissue engineering products. Manufacturing constraints, clinical limitations, and regulatory challenges in design and development of tissue-engineering devices. Concurrently scheduled with course C247. Letter grading. Mr. Wu (Sp)

M153. Introduction to Microscale and Nanoscale Manufacturing. (4)

(Same as Chemical Engineering M153, Electrical Engineering M153, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M183B.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, five hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 20A, Physics 1A, 1B, 1C, 4AL, 4BL. Introduction to general manufacturing methods, mechanisms, constrains, and microfabrication and nanofabrication. Focus on concepts, physics, and instruments of various microfabrication and nanofabrication techniques that have been broadly applied in industry and academia, including various photolithography technologies, physical and chemical deposition methods, and physical and chemical etching methods. Hands-on experience for fabricating microstructures and nanostructures in modern cleanroom environment. Letter grading. Mr. Chiou (F,Sp)

C155. Fluid-Particle and Fluid-Structure Interactions in Microflows. (4)

Lecture, four hours; laboratory, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisite: course 110. Introduction to Navier/Stokes equations, assumptions, and simplifications. Analytical framework for calculating simple flows and numerical methods to solve and gain intuition for complex flows. Forces on particles in Stokes flow and finite-inertia flows. Flows induced around particles with and without finite inertia and implications for particle-particle interactions. Secondary flows induced by structures and particles in confined flows. Particle separations by fluid dynamic forces: field-flow fractionation, inertial focusing, structure-induced separations. Application concepts in internal biological flows and separations for biotechnology. Helps students become sufficiently fluent with fluid mechanics vocabulary and techniques, design and model microfluidic systems to manipulate fluids, cells, and particles, and develop strong intuition for how fluid and particles behave in arbitrarily structured microchannels over range of Reynolds numbers. Concurrently scheduled with course C255. Letter grading. Mr. Di Carlo (Sp)

165EW. Bioengineering Ethics. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, three hours; outside study, five hours. All professions have ethical rules that derive from moral theory. Bioethics is well-established discipline that addresses ethical problems about life, such as when do fertilized eggs become people? Should ending of life ever be assisted? At what cost should it be maintained? Unlike physicians, bioengineers do not make these decisions in practice. Engineering ethics addresses ethical problems about producing devices from molecules to bridges, such as when do concerns about risk outweigh concerns about cost? When are weapons too dangerous to design? At what point does benefit of committing to building devices outweigh need to wait for more scientific confirmation of their effectiveness? Bioengineers must be aware of consequences of applying such devices to all living systems. Emphasis on research and writing within engineering environments. Satisfies engineering writing requirement. Letter grading. Mr. Wu (Not offered 2016-17)

167L. Bioengineering Laboratory. (4)

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Enforced requisite: Chemistry 20L. Laboratory experiments in fluorescence microscopy, bioconjugation, soft lithography, and cell culture culminate in design of engineered surface for cell growth. Introduction to techniques used in laboratories and their underlying physical or chemical properties. Case studies connect laboratory techniques to current biomedical engineering research and reinforce experimental design skills. Letter grading. Ms. Seidlits (Sp)

C170. Energy-Tissue Interactions. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C170.) Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Enforced requisites: Life Sciences 2, Physics 1C. Introduction to therapeutic and diagnostic use of energy delivery devices in medical and dental applications, with emphasis on understanding fundamental mechanisms underlying various types of energy-tissue interactions. Concurrently scheduled with course C270. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (F)

C170L. Introduction to Techniques in Studying Laser-Tissue Interaction. (2)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C170L.) Laboratory, four hours; outside study, two hours. Corequisite: course C170. Introduction to simulation and experimental techniques used in studying laser-tissue interactions. Topics include computer simulations of light propagation in tissue, measuring absorption spectra of tissue/tissue phantoms, making tissue phantoms, determination of optical properties of different tissues, techniques of temperature distribution measurements. Concurrently scheduled with course C270L. Letter grading. (Not offered 2016-17)

C171. Laser-Tissue Interaction II: Biologic Spectroscopy. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C171.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course C170. Designed for physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering majors. Introduction to optical spectroscopy principles, design of spectroscopic measurement devices, optical properties of tissues, and fluorescence spectroscopy biologic media. Concurrently scheduled with course C271. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (W)

C172. Design of Minimally Invasive Surgical Tools. (4)

(Formerly numbered M172.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 30B, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L, Mathematics 32A. Introduction to design principles and engineering concepts used in design and manufacture of tools for minimally invasive surgery. Coverage of FDA regulatory policy and surgical procedures. Topics include optical devices, endoscopes and laparoscopes, biopsy devices, laparoscopic tools, cardiovascular and interventional radiology devices, orthopedic instrumentation, and integration of devices with therapy. Examination of complex process of tool design, fabrication, testing, and validation. Preparation of drawings and consideration of development of new and novel devices. Concurrently scheduled with course C272. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (Sp)

176. Principles of Biocompatibility. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: course 100, Mathematics 33B, Physics 1C. Biocompatibility at systemic, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Biomechanical compatibility, stress/strain constitutive equations, cellular and molecular response to mechanical signals, biochemical and cellular compatibility, immune response. Letter grading. Mr. Wu (Sp)

177A. Bioengineering Capstone Design I. (4)

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Enforced requisites: courses 167L, 176. Lectures, seminars, and discussions on aspects of biomedical device and therapeutic design, including topics such as need finding, intellectual property, entrepreneurship, regulation, and project management. Working in teams, students develop innovative solutions to address current problems in medicine and biology. Sourcing and ordering of materials and supplies relevant to student projects. Exploration of different experimental and computational methods. Scientific presentation of progress. Letter grading. Mr. Di Carlo (F)

177B. Bioengineering Capstone Design II. (4)

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Enforced requisite: course 177A. Lectures, seminars, and discussions on aspects of biomedical device and therapeutic design, including meetings with scientific/clinical advisers and guest lectures from scientists in industry. Working in teams, students develop innovative solutions to address current problems in medicine and biology. Students conduct directed experiments and computational modeling, give oral presentations, write reports, and participate in bioengineering design competition. Letter grading. Mr. Di Carlo (W)

CM178. Introduction to Biomaterials. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM180.) (Same as Materials Science CM180.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, and 20L, or Materials Science 104. Engineering materials used in medicine and dentistry for repair and/or restoration of damaged natural tissues. Topics include relationships between material properties, suitability to task, surface chemistry, processing and treatment methods, and biocompatibility. Concurrently scheduled with course CM278. Letter grading. Ms. Kasko (F)

C179. Biomaterials-Tissue Interactions. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C181.) Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Requisite: course CM178. In-depth exploration of host cellular response to biomaterials: vascular response, interface, and clotting, biocompatibility, animal models, inflammation, infection, extracellular matrix, cell adhesion, and role of mechanical forces. Concurrently scheduled with course C279. Letter grading. Mr. Wu (Not offered 2016-17)

180. System Integration in Biology, Engineering, and Medicine I. (4)

Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: courses 100, 110, 120, Life Sciences 3, Physics 1C. Corequisite: course 180L. Part I of two-part series. Molecular basis of normal physiology and pathophysiology, and engineering design principles of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. Fundamental engineering principles of selected medical therapeutic devices. Letter grading. Mr. Dunn, Mr. Wu (W)

180L. System Integration in Biology, Engineering, and Medicine I Laboratory. (4)

Lecture, one hour; laboratory, four hours; clinical visits, four hours; outside study, three hours. Corequisite: course 180. Hands-on experimentation and clinical applications of selected medical therapeutic devices associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders. Letter grading. Mr. Dunn, Mr. Wu (Sp)

C183. Targeted Drug Delivery and Controlled Drug Release. (4)

(Formerly numbered M183.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L. New therapeutics require comprehensive understanding of modern biology, physiology, biomaterials, and engineering. Targeted delivery of genes and drugs and their controlled release are important in treatment of challenging diseases and relevant to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Drug pharmacodynamics and clinical pharmacokinetics. Application of engineering principles (diffusion, transport, kinetics) to problems in drug formulation and delivery to establish rationale for design and development of novel drug delivery systems that can provide spatial and temporal control of drug release. Introduction to biomaterials with specialized structural and interfacial properties. Exploration of both chemistry of materials and physical presentation of devices and compounds used in delivery and release. Concurrently scheduled with course C283. Letter grading. Ms. Kasko (Sp)

M184. Introduction to Computational and Systems Biology. (2)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M184.) (Same as Computational and Systems Biology M184 and Computer Science M184.) Lecture, two hours; outside study, four hours. Enforced requisites: one course from Civil Engineering M20, Computer Science 31, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M20, or Program in Computing 10A, and Mathematics 3B or 31B. Survey course designed to introduce students to computational and systems modeling and computation in biology and medicine, providing motivation, flavor, culture, and cutting-edge contributions in computational biosciences and aiming for more informed basis for focused studies by students with computational and systems biology interests. Presentations by individual UCLA researchers discussing their active computational and systems biology research. P/NP grading. Mr. DiStefano (F)

C185. Introduction to Tissue Engineering. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C185.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: course CM102 or CM202, Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L. Tissue engineering applies principles of biology and physical sciences with engineering approach to regenerate tissues and organs. Guiding principles for proper selection of three basic components for tissue engineering: cells, scaffolds, and molecular signals. Concurrently scheduled with course C285. Letter grading. Ms. Kasko (W)

CM186. Computational Systems Biology: Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems. (5)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM186.) (Same as Computational and Systems Biology M186 and Computer Science CM186.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, three hours; outside study, eight hours. Corequisite: Electrical Engineering 102. Dynamic biosystems modeling and computer simulation methods for studying biological/biomedical processes and systems at multiple levels of organization. Control system, multicompartmental, predator-prey, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and other structural modeling methods applied to life sciences problems at molecular, cellular (biochemical pathways/networks), organ, and organismic levels. Both theory- and data-driven modeling, with focus on translating biomodeling goals and data into mathematics models and implementing them for simulation and analysis. Basics of numerical simulation algorithms, with modeling software exercises in class and PC laboratory assignments. Concurrently scheduled with course CM286. Letter grading. Mr. DiStefano (F)

CM187. Research Communication in Computational and Systems Biology. (2 to 4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM187.) (Same as Computational and Systems Biology M187 and Computer Science CM187.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course CM186. Closely directed, interactive, and real research experience in active quantitative systems biology research laboratory. Direction on how to focus on topics of current interest in scientific community, appropriate to student interests and capabilities. Critiques of oral presentations and written progress reports explain how to proceed with search for research results. Major emphasis on effective research reporting, both oral and written. Concurrently scheduled with course CM287. Letter grading. Mr. DiStefano (Sp)

188. Special Courses in Bioengineering. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Special topics in bioengineering for undergraduate students taught on experimental or temporary basis, such as those taught by resident and visiting faculty members. May be repeated once for credit with topic or instructor change. Letter grading. (W)

194. Research Group Seminars: Bioengineering. (4)

Seminar, three hours. Limited to bioengineering undergraduate students who are part of research group. Study and analysis of current topics in bioengineering. Discussion of current research literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. Student presentation of projects in research specialty. May be repeated for credit. Letter grading.

199. Directed Research in Bioengineering. (2 to 8)

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research or investigation under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating paper or project required. May be repeated for credit with school approval. Individual contract required; enrollment petitions available in Office of Academic and Student Affairs. Letter grading.

Graduate Courses

C201. Engineering Principles for Drug Delivery. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C201.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: Mathematics 33B, Physics 1B. Application of engineering principles for designing and understanding delivery of therapeutics. Discussion of physics and mathematics required for understanding colloidal stability. Analysis of concepts related to both modeling and experimentation of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking mechanisms. Analysis of diffusion of drugs, coupled with computational and engineering mathematics approaches. Concurrently scheduled with course C101. Letter grading. Mr. Kamei (F)

CM202. Human Physiological Systems for Bioengineering I. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM202.) (Same as Physiological Science CM204.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Preparation: human molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology. Not open for credit to Physiological Science majors. Broad overview of basic biological activities and organization of human body in system (organ/tissue) to system basis, with particular emphasis on molecular basis. Modeling/simulation of functional aspect of biological system included. Actual demonstration of biomedical instruments, as well as visits to biomedical facilities. Concurrently scheduled with course CM102. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (F)

CM203. Human Physiological Systems for Bioengineering II. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM203.) (Same as Physiological Science CM203.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Preparation: human molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology. Not open for credit to Physiological Science majors. Molecular-level understanding of human anatomy and physiology in selected organ systems (digestive, skin, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, urinary, reproductive). System-specific modeling/simulations (immune regulation, wound healing, muscle mechanics and energetics, acid-base balance, excretion). Functional basis of biomedical instrumentation (dialysis, artificial skin, pathogen detectors, ultrasound, birth-control drug delivery). Concurrently scheduled with course CM103. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (W)

C204. Physical Chemistry of Biomacromolecules. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C204.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, 30A, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L. To understand biological materials and design synthetic replacements, it is imperative to understand their physical chemistry. Biomacromolecules such as protein or DNA can be analyzed and characterized by applying fundamentals of polymer physical chemistry. Investigation of polymer structure and conformation, bulk and solution thermodynamics and phase behavior, polymer networks, and viscoelasticity. Application of engineering principles to problems involving biomacromolecules such as protein conformation, solvation of charged species, and separation and characterization of biomacromolecules. Concurrently scheduled with course C104. Letter grading. Mr. Wong (F)

C205. Engineering of Bioconjugates. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C205.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L. Highly recommended: one organic chemistry course. Bioconjugate chemistry is science of coupling biomolecules for wide range of applications. Oligonucleotides may be coupled to one surface in gene chip, or one protein may be coupled to one polymer to enhance its stability in serum. Wide variety of bioconjugates are used in delivery of pharmaceuticals, in sensors, in medical diagnostics, and in tissue engineering. Basic concepts of chemical ligation, including choice and design of conjugate linkers depending on type of biomolecule and desired application, such as degradable versus nondegradable linkers. Presentation and discussion of design and synthesis of synthetic bioconjugates for some sample applications. Concurrently scheduled with course C105. Letter grading. Mr. Deming (F)

C206. Topics in Bioelectricity for Bioengineers. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C206.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 20B, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L, Mathematics 33B, Physics 1C. Coverage in depth of physical processes associated with biological membranes and channel proteins, with specific emphasis on electrophysiology. Basic physical principles governing electrostatics in dielectric media, building on complexity to ultimately address action potentials and signal propagation in nerves. Topics include Nernst/Planck and Poisson/Boltzmann equations, Nernst potential, Donnan equilibrium, GHK equations, energy barriers in ion channels, cable equation, action potentials, Hodgkin/Huxley equations, impulse propagation, axon geometry and conduction, dendritic integration. Concurrently scheduled with course C106. Letter grading. Mr. Schmidt (F)

C207. Polymer Chemistry for Bioengineers. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C207.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course C204 or C205. Fundamental concepts of polymer synthesis, including step-growth, chain growth (ionic, radical, metal catalyzed), and ring-opening, with focus on factors that can be used to control chain length, chain length distribution, and chain-end functionality, chain copolymerization, and stereochemistry in polymerizations. Presentation of applications of use of different polymerization techniques. Concepts of step-growth, chain-growth, ring-opening, and coordination polymerization, and effects of synthesis route on polymer properties. Lectures include both theory and practical issues demonstrated through examples. Concurrently scheduled with course C107. Letter grading. Mr. Deming (W)

M214A. Digital Speech Processing. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M214A.) (Same as Electrical Engineering M214A.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: Electrical Engineering 113. Theory and applications of digital processing of speech signals. Mathematical models of human speech production and perception mechanisms, speech analysis/synthesis. Techniques include linear prediction, filter-bank models, and homomorphic filtering. Applications to speech synthesis, automatic recognition, and hearing aids. Letter grading. Ms. Alwan (W)

M215. Biochemical Reaction Engineering. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M215.) (Same as Chemical Engineering CM215.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisite: Chemical Engineering 101C. Use of previously learned concepts of biophysical chemistry, thermodynamics, transport phenomena, and reaction kinetics to develop tools needed for technical design and economic analysis of biological reactors. Letter grading. Mr. Liao (Sp)

M217. Biomedical Imaging. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M217.) (Same as Electrical Engineering M217.) Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Requisite: Electrical Engineering 114 or 211A. Optical imaging modalities in biomedicine. Other nonoptical imaging modalities discussed briefly for comparison purposes. Letter grading.

M219. Principles and Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M219.) (Same as Physics and Biology in Medicine M219.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Basic principles of magnetic resonance (MR), physics, and image formation. Emphasis on hardware, Bloch equations, analytic expressions, image contrast mechanisms, spin and gradient echoes, Fourier transform imaging methods, structure of pulse sequences, and various scanning parameters. Introduction to advanced techniques in rapid imaging, quantitative imaging, and spectroscopy. Letter grading.

220. Introduction to Medical Informatics. (2)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 220.) Lecture, two hours; outside study, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Introduction to research topics and issues in medical informatics for students new to field. Definition of this emerging field of study, current research efforts, and future directions in research. Key issues in medical informatics to expose students to different application domains, such as information system architectures, data and process modeling, information extraction and representations, information retrieval and visualization, health services research, telemedicine. Emphasis on current research endeavors and applications. S/U grading. Mr. Kangarloo (F)

221. Human Anatomy and Physiology for Medical and Imaging Informatics. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 221.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for graduate students. Introduction to basic human anatomy and physiology, with particular emphasis on understanding and visualization of anatomy and physiology through medical images. Topics relevant to acquisition, representation, and dissemination of anatomical knowledge in computerized clinical applications. Topics include chest, cardiac, neurology, gastrointestinal/genitourinary, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems. Introduction to basic imaging physics (magnetic resonance, computed tomography, ultrasound, computed radiography) to provide context for imaging modalities predominantly used to view human anatomy. Geared toward nonphysicians who require more formal understanding of human anatomy/physiology. Letter grading. Mr. El-Saden (F)

223A-223B-223C. Programming Laboratories for Medical and Imaging Informatics I, II, III. (4-4-4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 223A-223B-223C.) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, two hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for graduate students. Programming laboratories to support coursework in other medical and imaging informatics core curriculum courses. Exposure to programming concepts for medical applications, with focus on basic abstraction techniques used in image processing and medical information system infrastructures. Letter grading. 223A. Requisites: Computer Science 31, 32, Program in Computing 20A, 20B. Course 223A is requisite to 223B, which is requisite to 223C. Integrated with topics presented in course M227 to reinforce concepts presented with practical experience. Projects focus on understanding medical networking issues and implementation of basic protocols for healthcare environment, with emphasis on use of DICOM. Introduction to basic tools and methods used within informatics. 223B. Requisite: course 223A. Integrated with topics presented in courses 223A, M227, and M228 to reinforce concepts presented with practical experience. Projects focus on medical image manipulation and decision support systems. 223C. Requisite: course 223B. Exposure to programming concepts for medical applications, with focus on basic abstraction techniques used to extract meaningful features from medical text and imaging data and visualize results. Integrated with topics presented in courses 224B and M226 to reinforce concepts presented with practical experience. Projects focus on medical information retrieval, knowledge representation, and visualization. Mr. Meng (F,W,Sp)

224A. Physics and Informatics of Medical Imaging. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 224A.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, eight hours. Requisites: Mathematics 33A, 33B. Designed for graduate students. Introduction to principles of medical imaging and imaging informatics for nonphysicists. Overview of core imaging modalities: X ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). Topics include signal generation, localization, and quantization. Image representation and analysis techniques such as Markov random fields, spatial characterization (atlases), denoising, energy representations, and clinical imaging workstation design. Provides basic understanding of issues related to basic medical image acquisition and analysis. Current research efforts with focus on clinical applications and new types of information made available through these modalities. Letter grading. Mr. Morioka (W)

224B. Advances in Imaging Informatics. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 224B.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 224A. Overview of information retrieval techniques in medical imaging and informatics-based applications of imaging, with focus on various advances in field. Introduction to core concepts in information retrieval (IR), reviewing seminal papers on evaluating IR systems and their use in medicine (e.g., teaching files, case-based retrieval, etc.). Medical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) as motivating application, with examination of core works in this area. Techniques to realize medical CBIR, including image feature extraction and processing, feature representation, classification schemes (via machine learning), image indexing, image querying methods, and visualization of images (e.g., perception, presentation). Discussion of more advanced methods now being pursued by researchers. Letter grading. Mr. Morioka (Sp)

M225. Bioseparations and Bioprocess Engineering. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M225.) (Same as Chemical Engineering CM225.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced corequisite: Chemical Engineering 101C. Separation strategies, unit operations, and economic factors used to design processes for isolating and purifying materials like whole cells, enzymes, food additives, or pharmaceuticals that are products of biological reactors. Letter grading. Mr. Monbouquette (W)

M226. Medical Knowledge Representation. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M226.) (Same as Information Studies M253.) Seminar, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for graduate students. Issues related to medical knowledge representation and its application in healthcare processes. Topics include data structures used for representing knowledge (conceptual graphs, frame-based models), different data models for representing spatio-temporal information, rule-based implementations, current statistical methods for discovery of knowledge (data mining, statistical classifiers, and hierarchical classification), and basic information retrieval. Review of work in constructing ontologies, with focus on problems in implementation and definition. Common medical ontologies, coding schemes, and standardized indices/terminologies (SNOMED, UMLS). Letter grading. Mr. Taira (Sp)

M227. Medical Information Infrastructures and Internet Technologies. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M227.) (Same as Information Studies M254.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for graduate students. Introduction to networking, communications, and information infrastructures in medical environment. Exposure to basic concepts related to networking at several levels: low-level (TCP/IP, services), medium-level (network topologies), and high-level (distributed computing, Web-based services) implementations. Commonly used medical communication protocols (HL7, DICOM) and current medical information systems (HIS, RIS, PACS). Advances in networking, such as wireless health systems, peer-to-peer topologies, grid/cloud computing. Introduction to security and encryption in networked environments. Letter grading. Mr. Bui (F)

M228. Medical Decision Making. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M228.) (Same as Information Studies M255.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for graduate students. Overview of issues related to medical decision making. Introduction to concept of evidence-based medicine and decision processes related to process of care and outcomes. Basic probability and statistics to understand research results and evaluations, and algorithmic methods for decision-making processes (Bayes theorem, decision trees). Study design, hypothesis testing, and estimation. Focus on technical advances in medical decision support systems and expert systems, with review of classic and current research. Introduction to common statistical and decision-making software packages to familiarize students with current tools. Letter grading. Mr. Kangarloo (W)

C231. Nanopore Sensing. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C231.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: courses 100, 120, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L, Physics 1A, 1B, 1C. Analysis of sensors based on measurements of fluctuating ionic conductance through artificial or protein nanopores. Physics of pore conductance. Applications to single molecule detection and DNA sequencing. Review of current literature and technological applications. History and instrumentation of resistive pulse sensing, theory and instrumentation of electrical measurements in electrolytes, nanopore fabrication, ionic conductance through pores and GHK equation, patch clamp and single channel measurements and instrumentation, noise issues, protein engineering, molecular sensing, DNA sequencing, membrane engineering, and future directions of field. Concurrently scheduled with course C131. Letter grading. Mr. Schmidt (F)

M233A. Medtech Innovation I: Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Medical Technology. (4)

(Formerly numbered 233A.) (Same as Management M271A.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, three hours; outside study, six hours. Designed for graduate and professional students in engineering, dentistry, design, law, management, and medicine. Focus on understanding how to identify unmet clinical needs, properly filtering through these needs using various acceptance criteria, and selecting promising needs for which potential medtech solutions are explored. Students work in groups to expedite traditional research and development processes to invent and implement new medtech devices that increase quality of clinical care and result in improved patient outcomes in hospital system. Introduction to intellectual property basics and various medtech business models. Letter grading. Mr. Liu, Mr. Shivkumar (W)

M233B. Medtech Innovation II: Prototyping and New Venture Development. (4)

(Formerly numbered 233B.) (Same as Management M271B.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, three hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course M233A. Designed for graduate and professional students in engineering, dentistry, design, law, management, and medicine. Development of medtech solutions for unmet clinical needs previously identified in course M233A. Steps necessary to commercialize viable medtech solutions. Exploration of concept selection, business plan development, intellectual property filing, financing strategies, and device prototyping. Letter grading. Mr. Liu, Mr. Shivkumar, Mr. Wu (Sp)

C239A. Biomolecular Materials Science I. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Overview of chemical and physical foundations of biomolecular materials science that concern materials aspects of molecular biology, cell biology, and bioengineering. Understanding of different types of interactions that exist between biomolecules, such as van der Waals interactions, entropically modulated electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, hydration and solvation interactions, polymer-mediated interactions, depletion interactions, molecular recognition, and others. Illustration of these ideas using examples from bioengineering and biomedical engineering. Students should be able to make simple calculations and estimates that allow them to engage broad spectrum of bioengineering problems, such as those in drug and gene delivery and tissue engineering. May be taken independently for credit. Concurrently scheduled with course C139A. Letter grading. Mr. Wong (W)

C239B. Biomolecular Materials Science II. (4)

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Course C239A is not requisite to C239B. Overview of chemical and physical foundations of biomolecular materials science that concern materials aspects of molecular biology, cell biology, and bioengineering. Understanding of different basic types of biomolecules, with emphasis on nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. Study of how biological and biomimetic systems organize into their functional forms via self-assembly and how these structures impart biological function. Illustration of these ideas using examples from bioengineering and biomedical engineering. Case study on current topics, including drug delivery, gene therapy, cancer therapeutics, emerging pathogens, and relation of self-assembly to disease states. May be taken independently for credit. Concurrently scheduled with course C139B. Letter grading. Mr. Wong (Sp)

CM240. Introduction to Biomechanics. (4)

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering CM240.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 96, 102, and 156A or 166A. Introduction to mechanical functions of human body; skeletal adaptations to optimize load transfer, mobility, and function. Dynamics and kinematics. Fluid mechanics applications. Heat and mass transfer. Power generation. Laboratory simulations and tests. Concurrently scheduled with course CM140. Letter grading. Mr. Gupta (W)

CM241. Mechanics of Cells. (4)

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering CM241.) Lecture, four hours. Introduction to physical structures of cell biology and physical principles that govern how they function mechanically. Review and application of continuum mechanics and statistical mechanics to develop quantitative mathematical models of structural mechanics in cells. Structure of macromolecules, polymers as entropic springs, random walks and diffusion, mechanosensitive proteins, single-molecule force-extension, DNA packing and transcriptional regulation, lipid bilayer membranes, mechanics of cytoskeleton, molecular motors, biological electricity, muscle mechanics, pattern formation. Concurrently scheduled with course CM141. Letter grading. (Not offered 2016-17)

CM245. Molecular Biotechnology for Engineers. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM245.) (Same as Chemical Engineering CM245.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Selected topics in molecular biology that form foundation of biotechnology and biomedical industry today. Topics include recombinant DNA technology, molecular research tools, manipulation of gene expression, directed mutagenesis and protein engineering, DNA-based diagnostics and DNA microarrays, antibody and protein-based diagnostics, genomics and bioinformatics, isolation of human genes, gene therapy, and tissue engineering. Concurrently scheduled with course CM145. Letter grading. Mr. Liao (F)

C247. Applied Tissue Engineering: Clinical and Industrial Perspective. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C247.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: course CM202, Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L, Life Sciences 1 or 2. Overview of central topics of tissue engineering, with focus on how to build artificial tissues into regulated clinically viable products. Topics include biomaterials selection, cell source, delivery methods, FDA approval processes, and physical/chemical and biological testing. Case studies include skin and artificial skin, bone and cartilage, blood vessels, neurotissue engineering, and liver, kidney, and other organs. Clinical and industrial perspectives of tissue engineering products. Manufacturing constraints, clinical limitations, and regulatory challenges in design and development of tissue-engineering devices. Concurrently scheduled with course C147. Letter grading. Mr. Wu (Sp)

M248. Introduction to Biological Imaging. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M248.) (Same as Pharmacology M248 and Physics and Biology in Medicine M248.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Exploration of role of biological imaging in modern biology and medicine, including imaging physics, instrumentation, image processing, and applications of imaging for range of modalities. Practical experience provided through series of imaging laboratories. Letter grading.

M250B. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Fabrication. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M250B.) (Same as Electrical Engineering M250B and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M280B.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course M153. Advanced discussion of micromachining processes used to construct MEMS. Coverage of many lithographic, deposition, and etching processes, as well as their combination in process integration. Materials issues such as chemical resistance, corrosion, mechanical properties, and residual/intrinsic stress. Letter grading. Mr. Candler (Sp)

M252. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Device Physics and Design. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M252.) (Same as Electrical Engineering M252 and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M282.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Introduction to MEMS design. Design methods, design rules, sensing and actuation mechanisms, microsensors, and microactuators. Designing MEMS to be produced with both foundry and nonfoundry processes. Computer-aided design for MEMS. Design project required. Letter grading. Mr. Wu (Sp)

C255. Fluid-Particle and Fluid-Structure Interactions in Microflows. (4)

Lecture, four hours; laboratory, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisite: course 110. Introduction to Navier/Stokes equations, assumptions, and simplifications. Analytical framework for calculating simple flows and numerical methods to solve and gain intuition for complex flows. Forces on particles in Stokes flow and finite-inertia flows. Flows induced around particles with and without finite inertia and implications for particle-particle interactions. Secondary flows induced by structures and particles in confined flows. Particle separations by fluid dynamic forces: field-flow fractionation, inertial focusing, structure-induced separations. Application concepts in internal biological flows and separations for biotechnology. Helps students become sufficiently fluent with fluid mechanics vocabulary and techniques, design and model microfluidic systems to manipulate fluids, cells, and particles, and develop strong intuition for how fluid and particles behave in arbitrarily structured microchannels over range of Reynolds numbers. Concurrently scheduled with course C155. Letter grading. Mr. Di Carlo (Sp)

257. Engineering Mechanics of Motor Proteins and Cytoskeleton. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 257.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: Life Sciences 3, 23L, Mathematics 32A, 32B, 33A, 33B, Physics 1A, 1B, 1C. Introduction to physics of motor proteins and cytoskeleton: mass, stiffness and damping of proteins, thermal forces and diffusion, chemical forces, polymer mechanics, structures of cytoskeletal filaments, mechanics of cytoskeleton, polymerization of cytoskeletal filaments, force generation by cytoskeletal filaments, active polymerization, motor protein structure and operation. Emphasis on engineering perspective. Letter grading.

M260. Neuroengineering. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M260.) (Same as Electrical Engineering M255 and Neuroscience M206.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, three hours; outside study, five hours. Requisites: Mathematics 32A, Physics 1B or 6B. Introduction to principles and technologies of bioelectricity and neural signal recording, processing, and stimulation. Topics include bioelectricity, electrophysiology (action potentials, local field potentials, EEG, ECOG), intracellular and extracellular recording, microelectrode technology, neural signal processing (neural signal frequency bands, filtering, spike detection, spike sorting, stimulation artifact removal), brain-computer interfaces, deep-brain stimulation, and prosthetics. Letter grading. Mr. Liu (Sp)

M261A-M261B-M261C. Evaluation of Research Literature in Neuroengineering. (2-2-2)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M261A-M261B-M261C.) (Same as Electrical Engineering M256A-M256B-M256C and Neuroscience M212A-M212B-M212C.) Discussion, two hours; outside study, four hours. Critical discussion and analysis of current literature related to neuroengineering research. S/U grading.

M263. Neuroanatomy: Structure and Function of Nervous System. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M263.) (Same as Neuroscience M203.) Lecture, three hours; discussion/laboratory, three hours. Anatomy of central and peripheral nervous system at cellular histological and regional systems level, with emphasis on contemporary experimental approaches to morphological study of nervous system in discussions of circuitry and neurochemical anatomy of major brain regions. Consideration of representative vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Letter grading.

C270. Energy-Tissue Interactions. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C270.) Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Enforced requisites: Life Sciences 2, Physics 1C. Introduction to therapeutic and diagnostic use of energy delivery devices in medical and dental applications, with emphasis on understanding fundamental mechanisms underlying various types of energy-tissue interactions. Concurrently scheduled with course C170. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (F)

C270L. Introduction to Techniques in Studying Laser-Tissue Interaction. (2)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C270L.) Laboratory, four hours; outside study, two hours. Corequisite: course C270. Introduction to simulation and experimental techniques used in studying laser-tissue interactions. Topics include computer simulations of light propagation in tissue, measuring absorption spectra of tissue/tissue phantoms, making tissue phantoms, determination of optical properties of different tissues, techniques of temperature distribution measurements. Concurrently scheduled with course C170L. Letter grading.

C271. Laser-Tissue Interaction II: Biologic Spectroscopy. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C271.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course C270. Designed for physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering majors. Introduction to optical spectroscopy principles, design of spectroscopic measurement devices, optical properties of tissues, and fluorescence spectroscopy biologic media. Concurrently scheduled with course C171. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (W)

C272. Design of Minimally Invasive Surgical Tools. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C272.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 30B, Life Sciences 2, 3, 23L, Mathematics 32A. Introduction to design principles and engineering concepts used in design and manufacture of tools for minimally invasive surgery. Coverage of FDA regulatory policy and surgical procedures. Topics include optical devices, endoscopes and laparoscopes, biopsy devices, laparoscopic tools, cardiovascular and interventional radiology devices, orthopedic instrumentation, and integration of devices with therapy. Examination of complex process of tool design, fabrication, testing, and validation. Preparation of drawings and consideration of development of new and novel devices. Concurrently scheduled with course C172. Letter grading. Mr. Grundfest (Sp)

CM278. Introduction to Biomaterials. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM280.) (Same as Materials Science CM280.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, and 20L, or Materials Science 104. Engineering materials used in medicine and dentistry for repair and/or restoration of damaged natural tissues. Topics include relationships between material properties, suitability to task, surface chemistry, processing and treatment methods, and biocompatibility. Concurrently scheduled with course CM178. Letter grading. Ms. Kasko (F)

C279. Biomaterials-Tissue Interactions. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C281.) Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Requisite: course CM278. In-depth exploration of host cellular response to biomaterials: vascular response, interface, and clotting, biocompatibility, animal models, inflammation, infection, extracellular matrix, cell adhesion, and role of mechanical forces. Concurrently scheduled with course C179. Letter grading. Mr. Wu (Not offered 2016-17)

282. Biomaterial Interfaces. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 282.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, eight hours. Requisite: course CM178 or CM278. Function, utility, and biocompatibility of biomaterials depend critically on their surface and interfacial properties. Discussion of morphology and composition of biomaterials and nanoscales, mesoscales, and macroscales, techniques for characterizing structure and properties of biomaterial interfaces, and methods for designing and fabricating biomaterials with prescribed structure and properties in vitro and in vivo. Letter grading. Ms. Maynard (W)

C283. Targeted Drug Delivery and Controlled Drug Release. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C283.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L. New therapeutics require comprehensive understanding of modern biology, physiology, biomaterials, and engineering. Targeted delivery of genes and drugs and their controlled release are important in treatment of challenging diseases and relevant to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Drug pharmacodynamics and clinical pharmacokinetics. Application of engineering principles (diffusion, transport, kinetics) to problems in drug formulation and delivery to establish rationale for design and development of novel drug delivery systems that can provide spatial and temporal control of drug release. Introduction to biomaterials with specialized structural and interfacial properties. Exploration of both chemistry of materials and physical presentation of devices and compounds used in delivery and release. Concurrently scheduled with course C183. Letter grading. Ms. Kasko (Sp)

M284. Functional Neuroimaging: Techniques and Applications. (3)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M284.) (Same as Neuroscience M285, Physics and Biology in Medicine M285, Psychiatry M285, and Psychology M278.) Lecture, three hours. In-depth examination of activation imaging, including MRI and electrophysiological methods, data acquisition and analysis, experimental design, and results obtained thus far in human systems. Strong focus on understanding technologies, how to design activation imaging paradigms, and how to interpret results. Laboratory visits and design and implementation of functional MRI experiment. S/U or letter grading.

C285. Introduction to Tissue Engineering. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering C285.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: course CM102 or CM202, Chemistry 20A, 20B, 20L. Tissue engineering applies principles of biology and physical sciences with engineering approach to regenerate tissues and organs. Guiding principles for proper selection of three basic components for tissue engineering: cells, scaffolds, and molecular signals. Concurrently scheduled with course C185. Letter grading. Ms. Kasko (W)

CM286. Computational Systems Biology: Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems. (5)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM286.) (Same as Computer Science CM286.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, three hours; outside study, eight hours. Corequisite: Electrical Engineering 102. Dynamic biosystems modeling and computer simulation methods for studying biological/biomedical processes and systems at multiple levels of organization. Control system, multicompartmental, predator-prey, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and other structural modeling methods applied to life sciences problems at molecular, cellular (biochemical pathways/networks), organ, and organismic levels. Both theory- and data-driven modeling, with focus on translating biomodeling goals and data into mathematics models and implementing them for simulation and analysis. Basics of numerical simulation algorithms, with modeling software exercises in class and PC laboratory assignments. Concurrently scheduled with course CM186. Letter grading. Mr. DiStefano (F)

CM287. Research Communication in Computational and Systems Biology. (2 to 4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering CM287.) (Same as Computer Science CM287.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course CM286. Closely directed, interactive, and real research experience in active quantitative systems biology research laboratory. Direction on how to focus on topics of current interest in scientific community, appropriate to student interests and capabilities. Critiques of oral presentations and written progress reports explain how to proceed with search for research results. Major emphasis on effective research reporting, both oral and written. Concurrently scheduled with course CM187. Letter grading. Mr. DiStefano (Sp)

295A-295Z. Seminars: Research Topics in Bioengineering. (2 each)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 295A-295Z.) Seminar, two hours; outside study, four hours. Limited to bioengineering graduate students. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in bioengineering. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. Student presentation of projects in research specialty. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading:

295A. Biomaterial Research.

295B. Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Research.

295C. Minimally Invasive and Laser Research.

295D. Hybrid Device Research.

295E. Molecular Cell Bioengineering Research.

295F. Biopolymer Materials and Chemistry.

295G. Biomicrofluidics and Bionanotechnology Research.

295H. Biomimetic System Research.

295J. Neural Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

M296A. Advanced Modeling Methodology for Dynamic Biomedical Systems. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M296A.) (Same as Computer Science M296A and Medicine M270C.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: Electrical Engineering 141 or 142 or Mathematics 115A or Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 171A. Development of dynamic systems modeling methodology for physiological, biomedical, pharmacological, chemical, and related systems. Control system, multicompartmental, noncompartmental, and input/output models, linear and nonlinear. Emphasis on model applications, limitations, and relevance in biomedical sciences and other limited data environments. Problem solving in PC laboratory. Letter grading. Mr. DiStefano (F)

M296B. Optimal Parameter Estimation and Experiment Design for Biomedical Systems. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M296B.) (Same as Biomathematics M270, Computer Science M296B, and Medicine M270D.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course CM286 or M296A or Biomathematics 220. Estimation methodology and model parameter estimation algorithms for fitting dynamic system models to biomedical data. Model discrimination methods. Theory and algorithms for designing optimal experiments for developing and quantifying models, with special focus on optimal sampling schedule design for kinetic models. Exploration of PC software for model building and optimal experiment design via applications in physiology and pharmacology. Letter grading. Mr. DiStefano (W)

M296C. Advanced Topics and Research in Biomedical Systems Modeling and Computing. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M296C.) (Same as Computer Science M296C and Medicine M270E.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M296B. Research techniques and experience on special topics involving models, modeling methods, and model/computing in biological and medical sciences. Review and critique of literature. Research problem searching and formulation. Approaches to solutions. Individual M.S.- and Ph.D.-level project training. Letter grading. Mr. DiStefano (Sp)

M296D. Introduction to Computational Cardiology. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering M296D.) (Same as Computer Science M296D.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course CM186. Introduction to mathematical modeling and computer simulation of cardiac electrophysiological process. Ionic models of action potential (AP). Theory of AP propagation in one-dimensional and two-dimensional cardiac tissue. Simulation on sequential and parallel supercomputers, choice of numerical algorithms, to optimize accuracy and to provide computational stability. Letter grading. Mr. Kogan (F,Sp)

298. Special Studies in Bioengineering. (4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 298.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Study of selected topics in bioengineering taught by resident and visiting faculty members. May be repeated for credit. Letter grading.

299. Seminar: Bioengineering Topics. (2)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 299.) Seminar, two hours; outside study, four hours. Designed for graduate bioengineering students. Seminar by leading academic and industrial bioengineers from UCLA, other universities, and bioengineering companies such as Baxter, Amgen, Medtronics, and Guidant on development and application of recent technological advances in discipline. Exploration of cutting-edge developments and challenges in wound healing models, stem cell biology, angiogenesis, signal transduction, gene therapy, cDNA microarray technology, bioartificial cultivation, nano- and micro-hybrid devices, scaffold engineering, and bioinformatics. S/U grading. Mr. Wu (F,W,Sp)

375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum. (1 to 4)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 375.) Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at UCLA. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

495. Teaching Assistant Training Seminar. (2)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 495.) Seminar, two hours; outside study, four hours. Limited to graduate bioengineering students. Required of all departmental teaching assistants. May be taken concurrently while holding TA appointment. Seminar on communicating bioengineering and biomedical engineering principles, concepts, and methods; teaching assistant preparation, organization, and presentation of material, including use of visual aids, grading, advising, and rapport with students. S/U grading. Mr. Kamei (F)

596. Directed Individual or Tutorial Studies. (2 to 8)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 596.) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate bioengineering students. Petition forms to request enrollment may be obtained from program office. Supervised investigation of advanced technical problems. S/U grading.

597A. Preparation for M.S. Comprehensive Examination. (2 to 12)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 597A.) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate bioengineering students. Reading and preparation for M.S. comprehensive examination. S/U grading.

597B. Preparation for Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations. (2 to 16)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 597B.) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate bioengineering students. S/U grading.

597C. Preparation for Ph.D. Oral Qualifying Examination. (2 to 16)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 597C.) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate bioengineering students. Preparation for oral qualifying examination, including preliminary research on dissertation. S/U grading.

598. Research for and Preparation of M.S. Thesis. (2 to 12)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 598.) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate bioengineering students. Supervised independent research for M.S. candidates, including thesis prospectus. S/U grading.

599. Research for and Preparation of Ph.D. Dissertation. (2 to 16)

(Formerly numbered Biomedical Engineering 599.) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate bioengineering students. Usually taken after students have been advanced to candidacy. S/U grading.